“People want riches; they need fulfillment.” -Robert Conklin


TASK AT HAND: This week I’m thinking about the difference between achievement and fulfillment. Achievement is commonly confused for fulfillment. In the culture of 80-hour work weeks, dog-eat-dog cynicism, and the perpetual climb of the job ladder, one can easily place achievement as the ultimate external benchmark of success. This strategy will eventual burn out. Instead, the focus should be on the internal barometer of fulfillment, to guide our plans.

Achievement can be defined as the process of successfully completing a task. As one can see, there is lots of good in achievement. It requires commitment to an end. It emphasizes  ability. However, achievement can become an empty end. Without an internal desire for excellence and without a process of development and introspection, achievement can result in empty goals and lackluster methods. Fulfillment, in totality, extracts meaning from our tasks. In other words, it is why we want to achieve a goal? This why is the crux of what fulfills you. While achievement is the “how”, start to think of fulfillment as the “why” to a strategy or goal.

People often ask me, “what is the easiest path to fulfillment?” I say: start by collecting experiences and not things! Collecting experiences, for example by traveling, allows you to focus on transitions without some definitive end target. One of the most common end-of-life regrets is the wish to have traveled more during years of good health.  Too often, the substitution to the acquisition of items creates confusion in endless consumption. Goods – are only of value – if they are good for something.


MEDICINE & MACULA: Check out our new publication, Elevated intraocular pressure following pars plana vitrectomy due to trapped gas in the posterior chamber, published in Retinal Cases & Brief Reports (Fall 2016, Volume 10, Issue 4, pages 334–337).


Clinicians should be aware of elevated intraocular pressure secondary to trapped gas in the posterior chamber. Aspiration of the trapped gas can alleviate both pupillary block and angle closure without compromising gas tamponade.



Check out the publication here.




GRATIS: In your achievements, find fulfillment. And, in the life you are creating, seek a path that leaves you fulfilled and you will achieve that which is paramount.


My best to you,

David Almeida


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“If you’re the smartest one in the room, you’re in the wrong room.” -Richard Tirendi


TASK AT HAND: This week I’m thinking about the company we keep and the people that influence us. There is a sentiment that we should strive to be the smartest person in the room. That this is a worthy goal to aspire to. That, somehow, if we are the “smartest” or “best” in the room, we will be able to exert influence or hold power over those around us. And thus, we will be successful. This is a dangerous myth! As the opening quote states, if you are the smartest person in the room, turn around, exit the room, and run – as fast as possible – in the opposite direction!

I’m often asked if this advice should be applied to professional relationships, or personal ones as well. In my opinion, you should apply this advice in its most general form: find people that will challenge and encourage you to grow. Find groups that will contribute to your proficiency and petitions. Avoid the fallacy of superiority – which is seeded in insecurity – by denying the need to be the smartest in the group. Instead, look to develop yourself by surrounding yourself with thoughtful and creative characters.

smartest in room

When it comes to coworkers, Donny Deutsch surmised it best: “my philosophy is to always find the smartest people you can. Hire people smarter than you.” The idea here is simple – but of utmost importance – you must surround yourself with colleagues and coworkers of the highest caliber possible. Whether you are in a small business or a large organization, collaborations should always have you reaching up! The simplest path to this growth is by surrounding yourself with those that have varied vantage points and see problems differently than you.

Why is this so important? The answer: “the people that you have around you are your biggest influence” (RJ Mitte). Since you are a running average of the people you most interact with, you need to be cognizant of who these people and groups are. If “leadership is influence” (John C. Maxwell), seek to be influenced by the best, and you will find yourself in good company.

MEDICINE & MACULA: Check out one of our recent publications, Acanthamoeba endophthalmitis after recurrent keratitis and nodular scleritis. Acanthamoeba species are ubiquitous free-living protozoa and are usually responsible for corneal disease. We present the first case with confirmed involvement of Acanthamoeba in all ocular layers, including choroidal involvement.

acanthamoeba panuveitis

Thank you Retinal Cases & Brief Reports for publishing our case! Check out the study here.

GRATIS: “Follow those who are seeking the truth, but run away from those who have found it.” Goethe

My best to you,

David Almeida

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constant change

“There is nothing permanent except change.” -Heraclitus


TASK AT HAND: This week, after reading the recent Fortune 500 review, I’m thinking about change. The Fortune 500 survey found that 97% of CEOs say their companies will change more in the next five years than in the past 5 years (Fortune.com, 15 June 2016). Fortune 500 CEOs, which lead benchmark business successes representing revenues equal to two-thirds of US gross domestic product, in majority “strongly agree” with this statement of emphasis on change.

The ability to change, at an organizational level, means adapting to growing market demands and is essential for survival. As a biological species, our ability to evolve granted us survival via constant differentiation. What happens now? At a personal level, the ability to change is paramount to fulfillment. I agree that, “To improve is to change; to be perfect is to change often” (Winston Churchill). This quote implores our need to constantly seek improvement. To seek constant change.



How do we seek change? First, realize “different” is not “change”. Different may be an avenue for change and may offer one the potential to change, but in of itself, does not permeate change. A clear example is traveling. One may travel to exotic places, see novel vistas and villagers, yet return to a baseline state soon thereafter. Actual change requires a loss of original identity. Simply recognizing that we are not permanent – that all our hang-ups and hiccups – are not perpetual opens us to the possibility of letting go of these old happenstances that prevent positive personal change.


“Only the wisest and stupidest of men never change.” Confucius

I have yet to meet the wisest man or woman, and myself feel a fool compared to the sages and stoics I am lucky enough to collide with. Approach change constantly. Let go of preset conditions. Change. Grow. Fulfill.

PS If you liked this Task At Hand, check out my post from last week on Anticipation vs Expectation; disregard expectations and find the purity of the challenge. You can find it here.



asrs 2016

MEDICINE & MACULA: This week I’m attending the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS) Annual Meeting in San Francisco, California. I wanted to thank everyone who reached out in interest of the work we presented. Also, a kind thanks to all my collaborators!


Here is a brief summary of the work we presented:

Comparison of microbiology and visual outcomes of patients undergoing small-gauge and 20-gauge vitrectomy for endophthalmitis. David RP Almeida, Eric K Chin, Benjamin Bakall & Vinit B. Mahajan


Long-term outcomes in patients undergoing vitrectomy for retinal detachment due to viral retinitis. David RP Almeida, Eric K Chin & Vinit B Mahajan


Ocular hypertension after intravitreal dexamethasone (Ozurdex) sustained-release implant. Eric K Chin, David RP Almeida, Gabriel Velez, Kunyong Xu, Maria Peraire, Maria Corbella, Yasser M Elshatory, Young H Kwon, Karen M Gehrs, H. Culver Boldt, Elliott H Sohn, Stephen R Russell, James C Folk & Vinit Mahajan


Bimanual pars plana vitrectomy for removal of a dislocated descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty graft from the vitreous cavity. Kunyong Xu, Eric K Chin, Emmett Carpel & David RP Almeida


Intravitreal foscarnet with concurrent silicone oil tamponade for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment secondary to viral retinitis. Kunyong Xu, Eric K Chin, Vinit Mahajan, & David RP Almeida



Yes, there are two paths you can go by, but in the long run

There’s still time to change the road you’re on

And it makes me wonder.

“Stairway to Heaven” by Led Zeppelin


My best to you,

David Almeida

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expectation anticipation art

“We need the sweet pain of anticipation to tell us we are really alive.” 

Albert Camus


TASK AT HAND: This week I’m thinking about a couple of concepts that tend to get incorrectly used interchangeably: anticipation and expectation. These are two concepts that frequently occupy my headspace because they have a strong potential to influence outcomes.

Anticipation is a fantastic moment that speaks to an aura of readiness. Much is possible in the moment of anticipation. It means you are getting ready, trying to comprehend, commencing an engagement with the road ahead. Anticipation is selfless. It does not expect anything. It possesses all potential for a future moment. There is no defined outcome in anticipation because all possibilities may exist in that sphere. In decision making and problem solving, anticipation can be critical to highlighting possible outcomes; some would argue “wisdom consists of the anticipation of consequences” (Norman Cousins). Because anticipation does not define one expectation, you can consider all possibilities with an expansive vantage point.


waiting for santa

Think about yourself as a child, or think about your own children, waiting for an event. Anticipation is a seed that blooms into wonder because all is possible. Indeed, Andy Warhol tapped into this sentiment: “the idea of waiting for something makes it more exciting”. Anticipation will always have elements of surprise – an excitement that does not exist in most other forms of preparation. This keeps you engaged, tactful and ready.


Now let us meet expectation – an endless source of exasperation and annoyance. Expectation is an irritant that can ruin many an event. With expectation, there is the creation of a specific outcome you predict or hope will occur, opening the door to disappointment. If your experience is less than your expectation, you are left disappointed. “Life is so constructed, that the event does not, cannot, will not, match the expectation” (Charlotte Bronte). So, the best remedy is, to discard these expectations.

If you start with preconceived notions, for any encounter or challenge, you’re coming in with expectations that essentially define certain parameters of your experience, and consequently, degrade your experience. Avoid this! “Blessed is he who expects nothing, for he shall never be disappointed” (Alexander Pope). Change this behavior and assume the purity of anticipation. The examples are few – unfortunately – where your experience goes beyond your expectations so avoid the expectations that build resentment and create dissatisfaction.

How do we apply this? Anticipate more and expect nothing! Anticipate. Be ready. Wonder at the possibilities.  Anticipate the challenge. Try to focus on a current challenge and anticipate the possibilities and consequences. Let us not expect some single quanta from any experience. Some will say, “well, you’re just setting really low expectations.” No, I’m taking it one step further. I’m setting no expectations. I want the purity of the challenge that leaves me with wonderment from my subsequent experience.

MEDICINE & MACULA: This week, for Medicine & Macula, I want to highlight our recently published paper on Zika-related maculopathy. We show posterior segment changes in a confirmed case of Zika in the hope of adding further knowledge to the growing spectrum of Zika-related pathology.

zika fa

Thank you Ophthalmology for publishing our case! Check out the study here.

zika citation


GRATIS: “I’m not in this world to live up to your expectations and you’re not in this world to live up to mine.”― Bruce Lee


My best to you,

David Almeida

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eye tree

“Practice makes permanent; practice – with purpose and passion – transforms.”


TASK AT HAND: This week I’m thinking about practice. We practice golf swings, practice speeches, practice free throws, practice how to be a better person. We practice work, tasks, and actions. We practice, practice, and practice. I’m a vitreoretinal surgeon and I work in a medical practice; I practice surgery, medicine, and how to restore vision.


But what does all this practice get us?

Entrenched in practice is the idea that repetition will allow you to achieve perfection, and therein lies the goal. This is incorrect! Practice does not make perfect, but rather only establishes permanence. This is the most common error I see in people who earnestly practice in the hope of trying to improve. Let’s disrupt this myth – practice only makes permanent – hard stop. Practicing something over and over only leads to the likelihood that you will repeat the action or reaction in that context. This is not erroneous, and is sometimes useful, but it lacks full realization. Permanency is static and not what you are trying to achieve – the whole point of practice is to transform the action in question. So, what is the first thing to do to improve how you practice? Break away from the desire to reach perfection and avoid the trap of permanence.
So, then, how do you practice?

Practice with purpose! Establish the purpose of your action. You must find the purpose in what you’re trying to achieve. That is, you must decode the objective of your achievement. Be mindful of the task you are practicing. Engrossed in it, from all aspects of yourself, allows you to find the core purpose and unlocks your ability to transform.
Practice with passion. As I said above, I work in a medical practice. I take care of patients and I practice my craft. If I pursue this with mindless application, I may become very good at satisfying procedures and protocols by repeating them over and over in an efficient manner. But when I find purpose, and couple this with passion to achieve my goal, I begin to evolve and transform my skills to achieve better results – to innovate and renew my skills for the betterment of my patients and myself.


Aristotle stated, “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, therefore, is not an act but a habit.” So, next time you are refining what you do, remember practice only makes permanent – so practice with purpose and practice with passion – and transform to reach your peak.


MEDICINE & MACULA: In line with our discussion on practice, a recent study entitled, Feasibility of Human Factors Immersive Simulation Training in Ophthalmology, looked at how human factors training can enhance team working and reduce error. This is used regularly in certain medical disciplines, but its use has not been established for ophthalmology. The study found that human factors simulation in ophthalmology offers a new method of teaching team members, with the potential to reduce serious ophthalmic patient safety events. In this I see another example of practicing with purpose, driven by passion, as a means to find innovative methods and improve outcomes.

Check out the study here.


GRATIS: Tomorrow is Independence Day and I hope you have a wonderful celebration. I was born in Portugal, grew up in Canada, lived in Europe, and now I am privileged and grateful to call the United States home. Happy 4th of July!

usa flag

My best to you,

David Almeida

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burnout pile of papers

“I have a theory that burnout is about resentment. And you beat it by knowing what it is you’re giving up.” Marissa Mayer, Chief Executive Officer, Yahoo!


TASK AT HAND: This week I’m thinking about burnout. I’ve received a lot of emails about this recently and, when you consider the most recent data, US worker burnout rates are as high as 45%. So, let’s define burnout, uncover what makes you susceptible to burnout, and – most importantly – how you can avoid it.

What is burnout? This is a difficult concept to grasp and ranges from excessive work load to erosion of motivation and worth from one’s occupation. Personally, I believe that burnout goes beyond work load and is actually based on a balance between drive and work load; specifically, when work load is greater than your drive or motivation to complete it, you get into burnout territory. Burnout is a chronic condition and should not be equated with acute stress. Acute stress can be an excellent driving force but, if excessive and prolonged, can lead to burnout. As balance is lost, more work piles up, and motivation dips further. The cycle of burnout quickly gets out of control and resentment becomes a dominant sentiment. This resentment hinders both personal satisfaction and meaningful relationships.

What makes you susceptible to burnout? I have found there are two key characteristics that increase your likelihood of burnout. First, if you are the person that says “yes” to every request – be careful! Now, please realize, I am this type of person: I want to say yes to every request but, this is not a sustainable strategy! Start saying no and you will see how liberating it is. Every time you say yes to a task you are saying no to everything else: to time with family, to time with friends, to time with activities that renew you. David Allen wrote, “Much of the stress that people feel doesn’t come from having too much to do. It comes from not finishing what they’ve started.” If you say yes to every request, you will start having difficulty finishing it all. Second, isolation is a major risk factor for burn out. Isolated individuals are more likely to get caught in the cycle of dipping motivation and increased workloads because they lack positive external forces to help identify this.

So, what can you do to minimize burnout? Once again, I must emphasize that stress is not burnout; stress is acute and usually for a short period while burnout is a prolonged chronic condition. For stress, I really like Lee Iacocca’s advice: “In times of great stress or adversity, it’s always best to keep busy, to plow your anger and your energy into something positive.” However, if the stress is endless and burnout has started – mostly because your motivation and drive are fading – you need to change your strategy. This is where I really like the Mayer quote: always know what you are giving up! This way, you will learn to say no and remain focused on your priorities and principals. Finally, meaningful activities and relationships are paramount. Do not isolate yourself from loved ones, friends, or new experiences. Renew your motivation hourly and realign your focus constantly!


MEDICINE & MACULA: Interesting study in the journal Eye on patient perspectives in the delivery of treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Survey of 87 patients found the most important factor to patients was: (1) having good vision, (2) one-stop service, and (3) less frequent follow up. The least important factors were label status of the drug, cost to the health service, and grade of the injector. Drives home what I see in clinic every day: patients want to preserve the best possible vision in the most convenient manner.

Check out the study here.


GRATIS: I attended the WAVE Ocular Imaging Conference this week (June 22-25) in beautiful Vail, Colorado. It was a wonderful meeting delving deep into complex and challenging vitreoretinal topics. I presented, Surgical Techniques and Outcomes for Retinal Detachment Secondary to Viral Retinitis (below is a preoperative and postoperative photo of one of the patients), and grateful to my colleagues for the fantastic discussion.

RS Figure ARN


My best to you,

David Almeida

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“Success is simple. Do what’s right, the right way, at the right time.” Arnold H. Glasow


TASK AT HAND: This week I’m thinking about time. Specifically, how to decide on timing for optimal execution of strategy; in other words, what is the right time for a given action?

When considering strategy, and within the paradigm of planning and execution, timing is crucial to the latter. You have to ask yourself, when do I have to act? What is the optimal time for me to achieve the outcome I desire? You may know how to act, but the question here is – when to act? The key then is deciphering how much time you have. We will quickly see that this is not always possible, and in fact, morphs into an existential question in its broadest extension – how much time do I have left? But that is for another day…


You can decipher how much time exists by deconstructing this strategic element of decision making into 3 scenarios.

1)  Defined time period. This is the easy one and applies to a large share of your strategic decision making. This applies to scenarios where you have a defined timeline (e.g., decision is due in 10 days). In these instances, it is best to allocate the minimum resources to achieve the goal within that time frame. Use the time you have!

2)  Undefined time period. Now it’s getting harder… With an undefined time period, you have time competition. With no known timeline, you have to allocate resources in a judicial manner to achieve your desired outcome with external time competition present. In these cases, you almost always gain an edge by executing promptly! This is more significant if you are in a novel market with possibility for a first-mover advantage – the advantage gained by the initial occupant of a market segment. If you have the possibility for technological leadership, you need to move fast!

3)  Asymmetric time period. This is the most complex situation and relates to decisions with external competition as well as internal factors; it also most analogous to surgery where – at any time – there can be total destabilization forces (complications). In these instances, decision analysis has to find the “window of minimal conflict” which designates the optimal timing for execution.

For example, cataract (clouding of the natural eye lens) extraction was initially performed as “couching” where a needle was use to push the lens out of the visual axis into the back part of the eye. As you can imagine, this provides terrible visual results and was riddled with complications. This technique operated within a window of maximal conflict: you perforated the eye without a proper wound, you did not control the inflammation, and you failed to replace the refractive element of the eye. Instead, modern cataract surgery relies on proper wound construction, excellent visualization, etc. to find the right time to remove the cloudy cataract – using minimal ultrasonic energy within a stable eye – at a time of minimal conflict to achieve the best possible outcomes.

There is another benefit to operating within a window of minimal conflict. If you happen to execute the wrong decision, damage limitation and error correction are simpler. Contrastingly, high stakes – or decisions made within windows of maximum conflict – requires you to take on excess risk and need to be carefully leveraged.


Next time you have a decision, deconstruct and decipher the time window you are operating in; then, execute the right way at the right time!


MEDICINE & MACULA: Our new case, Distinguishing optic pathway glioma and retinitis pigmentosa with visual field testing, reviews the challenging issue of visual field defects in retinitis pigmentosa (an inherited retinal disease) and optic glioma (a brain cancer). It was published in Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology (Volume 51, Issue 3). Check out the study here.



GRATIS: Happy Father’s Day to all those who have served, and continue to serve, as role models and teachers. Thank you!


My best to you,

David Almeida

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“The focused mind only picks up on those aspects of a situation that are needed to accomplish the task at hand. It is not distracted by other thoughts or external events.” The Inner Game of Tennis by Timothy Gallwey


Task at hand: This week I’m thinking about the concept of cognitive burden. We know from cognitive psychology that cognitive load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used in the working memory. Cognitive burden can be thought of as an excess load on our mental effort – I attribute this undue burden to mostly meaningless or inconsequential items. We all want the personal freedom to choose: to choose a place to call home, to choose a partner, to choose a career. However, do we want to make every possible decision and have every choice? Personally, I don’t want to have to choose when to breathe, when to take the next walking step.

Do we want to burden ourselves with the construct of every action? Yet, our lives are increasingly filled with inconsequential decisions – from cell phone plans to social media posts – it’s easy to lose clarity. Thus, we arrive at the point of today’s scrub: remain focused on what is important to you and minimize cognitive burden. There are two main strategies I use for this.

The first one applies to extrinsic inconsequential items. You have to strip these decisions away. Einstein had multiples of the same suit and shirt so he never wasted any time on this trivial matter. He was right – you shouldn’t waste any of your mental energy on this! I’m a believer of the morning routine: wake up, exercise, nutrition and don’t burden your brain until executive functions are actually required. For these inconsequential items, try to create as many possible routines as possible. I really don’t want to use any of my processing power for these mundane musings; I want to save them for creativity and problem solving.

The second item is related to intrinsic cognitive burden. This is a major component, and the one I find hardest to minimize. First, you have to realize that there are two parts to your being: a physical part that executes movements and actions and a cerebral part that perceives and processes. Unfortunately, these two seem to be in constant battle with each other. Your cerebral part is constantly burdening you – the voice ruminating and contemplating – eliminate it so that it does not undermine what you desire.


Minimize your cognitive burden – both the extrinsic inconsequential happenings and the intrinsic personal trappings – so that in clarity you can fulfill your potential.


Medicine & Macula: Interesting article in JAMA on the resurgence of syphilis in the United States. Syphilis is caused by infection with the Treponema pallidum pathogen and can cause a myriad of systemic and ocular manifestations. While there were fewer than 4 cases per 100 000 by the year 2000, this has been increasing every year since that historic low.

The task force finds that there is net benefit of screening for syphilis infection in nonpregnant persons who are at increased risk for infection. Screening allows for identification of infected individuals which can then be treated. Treatment of early syphilis with single-dose intramuscular administration of penicillin G is highly effective and has the advantage of assured adherence and can prevent significant morbidity of untreated disease. After seeing multiple patients this week with syphilis, I am reminded of the need to increase awareness of this great masquerade!

Check out the study here

US Preventive Services Task Force.  Screening for syphilis infection in nonpregnant adults and adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.5824.


Gratis: Check out Timothy Gallwey’s The Inner Game of Tennis: The Classic Guide to the Mental Side of Peak Performance (where the opening quote comes from). This book is about much more than tennis and is a wonderful short read on cognitive clarity and enhancing your ability to reach your potential in any situation.


My best to you,

David Almeida

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mnfl final

Task at hand: This week I’m once again thinking about decision making; specifically, decision analysis and how to achieve success in your decision making process. As you know, I like to borrow from the spheres of medicine, science and business when constructing my models and frameworks. When diagnosing a patient, physicians will investigate “associated factors” –  what are the related symptoms, history, or other issues that may be contributing to the suspected underlying diagnosis? Similarly, when looking at the decision or conflict at hand, spend some time deciphering the associated factors. These are always pertinent to the outcome you are trying to achieve.


Let me use a simplified example for you here. With spring in full swing, let’s say you are trying to decide on a particular plant for your garden. Our simplified desired successful outcome of this decision is to pick a plant that will not only grow – but thrive – through the seasons. Consequently, we can quickly deduce that the “associated factors” will include environment (weather, rain, soil quality), resource availability (how much time do you have to tend to the plant, what is your budget for seed), and appearance (do you want a pretty flower or a unique plant).


The best method I have found to uncover the associated factors of a particular decision is through visualization. The concept of “visualization” is common ranging from sports to cognitive-behavioral therapy. Here, I am ascribing visualization as an act to appreciate all the forces acting on your decision. I’m always surprised at how much I uncover through this process and realize that our decisions are heavily indebted to a lot of extraneous influences: it is usually not possible to remove these factors so one would be wise to figure them out!


I actually use a lot of visualization in surgery as well – many times, the surgeon’s view is compromised secondary to many possible factors. In these challenging instances, my visualization of the problem at hand and the role of my immediate environment allow me to continue without being deviated in a negative manner. So, next time you are pondering a difficult conflict – visualize the relevant associated factors – and give yourself some clarity on your way to success!


Medicine & Macula: The first US universal newborn ocular screening initiative was recently published in the journal Ophthalmology. It showed that fundus hemorrhages are common in healthy newborns, especially in those born by vaginal delivery (9 times more likely) and in forceps assisted delivery. While the long-term consequences of retinal hemorrhages on visual development remain unknown, it is important to have empirical knowledge that these are common. The issue of child abuse and shaken baby syndrome are a natural extension of this topic, and key points of differentiation (vitreous hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhages in multiple layers, traumatic retinoschisis) in the latter need to be emphasized.

Check out the study here


Gratis: Thanks to American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports for recently publishing our study on Delayed fungal endophthalmitis secondary to Curvularia.


Check out the paper here



Happy Memorial Day!

My best to you,

David Almeida

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Task at hand: This week I’m thinking about decision making, problem solving and conflict resolution. Before making any decision, you need to properly define or characterize what that decision is. In medicine, when elucidating a problem from a patient, a physician commonly describes the “character” of the problem; for example, what is the character of the pain? Is it a dull ache, sharp pain, or boring soreness? Continue reading Sunday Surgical Scrub: May 15, 2016

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