Research & Collaboration

Dr David Almeida has over 100 peer-reviewed publications and numerous other communications. He has collaborated with students, physicians and researchers in the United States, Canada, South America, Europe and Middle East.

Recent Collaborations

Dr Almeida continues to work on several exciting and dynamic ongoing projects with national and international collaborators.

Dr Parnian Arjmand MD, a senior ophthalmology resident at the University of Ottawa (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada), visited for a research elective in July 2017. She analyzed outcomes in cases of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Additionally, she collaborated on developing a novel surgical technique for optic pit maculopathy.


Dr Kunyong Xu MD MHSc, a senior ophthalmology resident at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada visited for a research elective in March 2016. His work focused on predictive factors of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, accidental laser pointer injuries in pediatric patients and novel surgical techniques. He is now a vitreoretinal surgical fellow at Weill Cornell Medical College Faculty in New York City.


Recent Publications

Update from the 21st Annual Club Vit meeting @ Sea Island GA (June 27 – July 1, 2018).

Fantastic meeting with a wonderful group of colleagues and friends. Grateful to be part of this sun-loving retina crew.

On Saturday (June 30), I presented on endophthalmitis management and vision outcomes, looking at 10 years of intravitreal injection data.

Hot off the press! Check out our new publication in RETINA: Predictive Factors for Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy Formation After Uncomplicated Primary Retinal Detachment Repair by Xu, Chin, Bennett, Williams, Ryan, Dev, Mittra, Quiram, Davies, Parke, Boldt & Almeida.

We identify cigarette smoking and macular involvement as significant risk factors predictive of PVR formation after uncomplicated primary retinal detachment repair. Duration of retinal detachment symptoms, high myopia, lens status, lattice degeneration, location of retinal break, number of retinal breaks and surgical technique (e.g., scleral buckle with or without vitrectomy versus vitrectomy alone) were not found to be predictive of PVR formation.

Lots of news from Toronto, Ontario, Canada at the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Annual Meeting (May 31-June 3 2018). Wonderful to be part of the faculty for the Bimanual Anterior Vitrectomy course on Saturday June 2nd.

On Friday (1 June 2018), Dr. Parnian Arjmand won 3rd place in the 2018 COS Awards for Excellence in Ophthalmic Research Poster Competition! Congratulations as she was first author on our abstract: “Fibrin glue and internal limiting membrane abrasion for optic disc pit maculopathy”. She presented our novel surgical technique in the Current Concepts I session.


Also on Friday (1 June 2018), I had the honor to present my “Mentors Perspective” at the EYE2EYE meeting! Lots of fun insight and I went through my Sacred 7: Top Pearls I Have Learned Since Starting My Practice. I can summarize with one quote from General Fox Connor, who would regularly repeat this to his young protégé, Dwight D Eisenhower: —“Always take your job seriously, never yourself.”

On Saturday (2 June 2018), Dr. Parnian Arjmand presented our abstract: Visual Outcomes & Risk Prediction Model for Patients with Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy. Congratulations to her and many thanks to the COS Annual Meeting Planning Committee for selecting this as a COS Hot Topic!


From Miami Beach FL, for the Vit-Buckle Society – VBS 6 – Annual Meeting, on Saturday (24 March 2018), I presented my talk, Steel to Heal: Surgical Techniques for Infectious Endophthalmitis.

I reviewed various approaches and surgical techniques for dealing with this devastating complication. Here is an example of me performing membranectomy using platform forceps to remove membranes in the anterior chamber via a 25-gauge valved cannula in the corneal limbus.

Many thanks for all the interest and support!


One of our recent publications in OPHTHALMOLOGY: Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injection of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors – Management and Visual Outcomes

We evaluated the management of patients who developed endophthalmitis after anti-VEGF injection. We reviewed a total of 258 357 intravitreal injections over the course of a 10-year period and found no difference in visual outcomes between initial treatment with immediate tap and injection of intravitreal antibiotics versus initial surgical pars plana vitrectomy.

Check out the study here.


Sincere thanks to The Ophthalmologist for publishing my article on the framework of Decision Diagnosis and how to apply the PACT strategy for effective decision making. You can find this in the February 2018 issue entitled, Decision Diagnosis: Making a PACT to avoid decision procrastination.

PACT refers to Practice, Assess, Collect and Triage. If you are struggling with decision making, then Decision Diagnosis can help you make a PACT.

You can find the article here.


Many thanks to The Ophthalmologist for publishing our article, When primary scleral buckling should be considered – and how to succeed (Alexander Ringeisen, Ed Ryan and David RP Almeida) in the February 2018 issue!

We go over why scleral buckling is still the treatment of choice for certain retinal detachments and which patients are the best candidates for a primary scleral buckle. The article is aimed at ophthalmology residents and vitreoretinal fellows and provides an overview when primary buckling should be considered and provide guidance on which techniques will help success, as well as when to avoid a primary buckle.

You can check out the entire publication here.


Many thanks to Clinical Ophthalmology for publishing our study, Epiretinal membrane and cystoid macular edema as predictive factors of recurrent proliferative vitreoretinopathy (Kunyong Xu, Eric K Chin, D Wilkin Parke 3rd & David RP Almeida).

You can find our study in the October 2017 issue here.

In it, we describe epiretinal membrane and cystoid macular edema as potential predictive factors for recurrent proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Early recognition and treatment of these conditions may be critical to prevent dreaded recurrent postoperative scarring and improve visual outcomes.


Earlier this year we published a photo essay on intraocular foreign bodies in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ). Entitled, Five things to know about intraocular foreign bodies (Kunyong Xu MD MHSc & David RP Almeida MD MBA PhD) – here is a quick summary:

1. Risk of intraocular foreign body is associated with mechanism of injury.

2. Ophthalmic examination should include dilation of the pupil.

3. Imaging should be conducted promptly to diagnose and localize intraocular foreign bodies.

4. Antibiotics should be prescribed early to prevent endophthalmitis.

5. Patients with an intraocular foreign body require urgent referral to an ophthalmologist.

You can find the study here.


From Barcelona, Spain, for the EURETINA Annual Congress, on Friday (8 September 2017), I presented a talk on our recent findings and techniques for proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).

My talk, Predictive factors for proliferative vitreoretinopathy formation after uncomplicated primary retinal detachment repair (David RP Almeida, Kunyong Xu, Eric K Chin & D Wilkin Parke III) looked at predictive tools for patients who develop this complex condition.

Many thanks for all the interest and international support!


Many thanks to New Retina MD for showcasing our case on the cover of the July 2017 Mystery Cases issue.

Our case, The Adventure of the Upstate Traveler: A camper brings home an unintended souvenir from a camping trip (Robin Kuriakose, Lorna Grant, Eric Chin & David Almeida) will have you checking twice after going out in the woods…

Attachment of a deer tick to the conjunctiva is a rare event, with only a few reports in the literature. We report a unique case of tick penetration into the conjunctiva, specifically a black-legged deer tick (Ixodes scapularis). You can find the case here.


From Boston, for the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS) 35th Annual Meeting,  you can find our study “Efficacy of Intravitreal Sustained-Release 0.7mg Dexamethasone Implant For Diabetic Macular Edema Refractory to Anti-VEGF Therapy: Meta-Analysis (Alexander L Ringeisen MD, Zainab Khan BHSc MD, Robin K Kuriakose MD, Maryam Khan, Eric K Chin MD & David RP Almeida, MD, MBA, PhD).

This study provides further insight into the benefits of multi-modality therapy for diabetic macular edema, the most common cause of vision loss in working age individuals.


Check out one of our recent publications, Novel Technique for Submacular Hemorrhage Removal Using 27-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen) Activator (Kunyong Xu MD MHSc, Eric K Chin MD, John B Davies MD & David RP Almeida MD MBA PhD). Many thanks to the Journal of VitreoRetinal Diseases for publishing our work!

You can find the study here.


Many thanks to the Journal of VitreoRetinal Diseases and the American Society of Retina Specialists for publishing one of our recent reports, West Nile Virus Chorioretinitis With Foveal Involvement: Evolution of Lesions on Optical Coherence Tomography (Gary L. Yau,  Eric K. Chin,  D. Wilkin Parke, Steven R. Bennett & David R. P. Almeida).

It was published in the March 2017 issue of the journal and describes the clinical course of foveal West Nile virus chorioretinitis.

You can find the publication here.


Best practices for the injection technique of the dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Ozurdex). Many thanks to my wonderful colleagues – Seenu M. Hariprasad MD, Kimberly Drenser MD PhD, Sunir Garg MD and Bruce Saran MD – for involving me in this excellent discussion!

Check out the publication in the May 2017 issue of  Retinal Physician here.

One of our most recent publications, Dysfunctional Autonomic Regulation of the Choroid in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (C Nathaniel Roybal, Elisabeth Sledz, Yasser Elshatory, Li Zhang, David RP Almeida, Eric K Chin, Brice Critser, Michael D Abramoff & Stephen R Russell), was published in the June 2017 issue of RETINA.

We describe the effect of changing perfusion pressures on retinal and choroidal structure in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). In this study, we found that choroidal thickness increased in response to increased perfusion pressures in patients with CSC and not in normal controls. These findings likely represent an autonomic dysregulation of choroidal blood flow in patients with CSC.

You can find the study here.


Another one of our recent publications, Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy (PVR) Update: Current Surgical Techniques and Emerging Medical Management (Robin K Kuriakose, Kunyong Xu, Eric K Chin & David RP Almeida) published in the Journal of VitreoRetinal Diseases (April 2017).

In this detailed review, we provide an update on current surgical techniques and emerging medical
management in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). PVR is the number one cause of failed retinal detachment repair and a still relatively unexplained phenomenon. We, along with Citrus Therapeutics are working hard to find treatment for this challenging disease process.

You can find the study here.


Another of our recent publications, Myelinated retinal nerve fibre, myopia, and amblyopia syndrome (Kunyong Xu & David RP Almeida) published in the Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology (April 2017).

We describe the complex relationship among myelinated nerve fibre, myopia, and amblyopia. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with blurry vision of the right eye over 2 months. The visual prognosis in these cases is variable.

You can find the study here.



Fantastic to be part of the faculty at the Vit-Buckle Society V meeting in Las Vegas (6-8 April 2017).

I presented a talk on proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), including pearls and techniques, for this challenging group of patients. Patients who are current or former smokers are significantly more likely to have PVR formation after retinal detachment repair.



Check out one of our most recent publications, Efficacy of the Intravitreal Sustained-Release Dexamethasone Implant for Diabetic Macular Edema Refractory to Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy: Meta-Analysis and Clinical Implications published in Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers and Imaging Retina (February 2017, Volume 48, Issue 2, pages 160-166, DOI: 10.3928/23258160-20170130-10).

In this meta-analysis, we examined a total of 3,859 patients among 15 studies and found that treatment with Ozurdex is associated with significant mean improvement in visual acuity in patients with diabetic macular edema who have a sub-optimal response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. This is further support to a multimodality approach to treating diabetic macular edema.

You can find the study here.



One of our recent publications, Deer Tick Masquerading as Pigmented Conjunctival Lesion (Robin K Kuriakose, Lorna W Grant, Eric K Chin & David RP Almeida). Thank you American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports for publishing our study.

In it, we report a unique case of tick penetration of a black-legged deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) into the conjunctiva. Despite the low risk for Lyme disease, doxycycline was prescribed for prophylaxis. In any case of suspected tick penetration to the ocular surface, immediate ophthalmologic consultation and prompt removal as well as attention paid to the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines regarding prophylaxis.

You can find the study here.


Thank you, Retina Specialist magazine, for showcasing our work on complicated viral retinitis retinal detachment repair in the November 2016 issue. This is part of our evolving work on approaches to complex retinal detachments.


Check out the publication here.




One of our published surgical techniques for endophthalmitis. The study entitled, Five-Port Combined Limbal and Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Infectious Endophthalmitis, was published in Case Reports in Ophthalmology (2016;7:289–291). In it, we describe a surgical technique combining limbal based vitrectomy and pars plana vitrectomy to manage acute infectious endophthalmitis. You can find the study here.



Wonderful to be part of the faculty in Toronto for the 56th Annual Walter Wright Symposium, Retina 2016: A Practical Approach to Navigating the Future.


I presented a talk on my approach and techniques for infectious endophthalmitis. The evolving paradigm calls for early surgery and aggressive treatment to salvage vision from this devastating infectious condition.



Check out our publication, Ocular Hypertension After Intravitreal Dexamethasone (Ozurdex) Sustained-Release Implant, published in RETINA. Our report shows that the intravitreal dexamethasone implant, Ozurdex, can be used in various types of patients – including glaucoma suspects – with a good safety profile.


Check out the publication here.





Check out another of our publications, Chronic Recurrent Pseudophakic Endophthalmitis, published in JAMA Ophthalmology (JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134(4):455-456. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.3638). 

This study details a case of an immunosuppressed patient with active chorioretinitis and chronic endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.


Check out the publication here.



Previously, I described our technique for retinal embolectomy. This technique was published in Retinal Cases & Brief Reports. Retinal embolectomy involves the removal of emobli from the retinal vasculature in selective cases of arterial occlusions.



Check out the publication here.




Check out another one of our publications, Elevated intraocular pressure following pars plana vitrectomy due to trapped gas in the posterior chamber, published in Retinal Cases & Brief Reports (Fall 2016, Volume 10, Issue 4, pages 334–337).


Clinicians should be aware of elevated intraocular pressure secondary to trapped gas in the posterior chamber. Aspiration of the trapped gas can alleviate both pupillary block and angle closure without compromising gas tamponade.


Check out the publication here.




On Friday, 14 October 2016, I presented a talk on our technique for retinal embolectomy at the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Retina Subspecialty Day in Chicago. Retinal embolectomy involves the removal of emobli from the retinal vasculature in selective cases of arterial occlusions.




Thanks to everyone for their interest in our technique!


Check out our photo essay in the October 2016 issue of Ophthalmology entitled, Pigmented Paravenous Retinochoroidal Atrophy (Lucas T. Lenci MD, D. Wilkin Parke III MD & David R.P. Almeida MD MBA PhD)



Great example of prominent atrophy of the retina and choroid surrounding the retinal venous circulation. Check out the publication here.




Check out our feature in the September 2016 issue of Retina Specialist entitled, MIVS and Post-op Endophthalmitis: A look at evolving trends and techniques.


Thanks for the continued interest in our microincisional vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) technique for infectious endophthalmitis. Check out the publication here.





Check out our publication in the September 2016 issue of the Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology entitled, Low power and type II errors in recent ophthalmology research. We show that a large proportion of randomized clinic trials contain statistical errors. The results of these studies have dramatic effects on day-to-day clinical practice and need to be designed and evaluated carefully. Check out the publication here.




I presented 2 talks at the annual EURETINA meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark.


Comparison of microbiology and visual outcomes of patients undergoing small-gauge and 20-gauge vitrectomy for endophthalmitis

Long-term outcomes in patients undergoing vitrectomy for retinal detachment due to viral retinitis in the afternoon session. 

euretina-logoThanks EURETINA!

Check out our publication, Retinal Injury Secondary to Laser Pointers in Paediatric Patients. Our study describes children who had laser-related retinal injury to the macula due to the mishandling of the laser pointer devices.

Peds citation

Peds laser figure


Thank you Pediatrics for publishing our study! Check out the study here.



Here is a brief summary of the work we presented at the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS) Annual Meeting in San Francisco, California in August 2016. Thank you for all the interest!

asrs 2016

Comparison of microbiology and visual outcomes of patients undergoing small-gauge and 20-gauge vitrectomy for endophthalmitis. David RP Almeida, Eric K Chin, Benjamin Bakall & Vinit B. Mahajan

Long-term outcomes in patients undergoing vitrectomy for retinal detachment due to viral retinitis. David RP Almeida, Eric K Chin & Vinit B Mahajan

Ocular hypertension after intravitreal dexamethasone (Ozurdex) sustained-release implant. Eric K Chin, David RP Almeida, Gabriel Velez, Kunyong Xu, Maria Peraire, Maria Corbella, Yasser M Elshatory, Young H Kwon, Karen M Gehrs, H. Culver Boldt, Elliott H Sohn, Stephen R Russell, James C Folk & Vinit Mahajan

Bimanual pars plana vitrectomy for removal of a dislocated descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty graft from the vitreous cavity. Kunyong Xu, Eric K Chin, Emmett Carpel & David RP Almeida

Intravitreal foscarnet with concurrent silicone oil tamponade for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment secondary to viral retinitis. Kunyong Xu, Eric K Chin, Vinit Mahajan, & David RP Almeida


Another of our publications, Acanthamoeba endophthalmitis after recurrent keratitis and nodular scleritis. Acanthamoeba species are ubiquitous free-living protozoa and are usually responsible for corneal disease. We present the first case with confirmed involvement of Acanthamoeba in all ocular layers, including choroidal involvement.

acanthamoeba panuveitis

Thank you Retinal Cases & Brief Reports for publishing our case! Check out the study here.




Our publication, Depression and burden among the caregivers of visually impaired patients: a systematic review. It surveys depression and burden among caregivers of patients with visual impairment. While caregiving allows those with vision problems to better adapt, it has been shown to take a toll on the caregiver on various levels, such as invoking depression and burden. Recognition of this is key for awareness, prevention and management.

burden study paperCaregiver burden fig

Thank you International Ophthalmology for publishing our study! Check out the study here.


One of our high-impact publications: Serologically Confirmed Zika-Related Unilateral Acute Maculopathy in an Adult shows novel posterior segment changes and maculopathy in a confirmed case of Zika. We hope this adds further knowledge to the growing spectrum of Zika-related pathology. Thank you Ophthalmology for publishing our case! Check out the study here.

zika fa

zika citation



Bimanual pars plana vitrectomy for removal of a dislocated DSAEK graft from the vitreous cavity, published in Retinal Cases & Brief Reports. We describe a new technique for removing dislocated grafts. You can review the study here.

PPV K graft 1          PPV K graft 2



Distinguishing optic pathway glioma and retinitis pigmentosa with visual field testing, published in the June 2016 issue of the Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology (Volume 51, Issue 3). You can review the study here.





Atypical chronic delayed-onset endophthalmitis, Delayed fungal endophthalmitis secondary to Curvularia, recently published in the American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. You can review the case here.




Another one of our published cases, Central retinal artery occlusion in a young HIV-infected patient on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART), has been published online ahead of print by Retinal Cases & Brief Reports. Check out the study here




Work With Dr David Almeida

We are proud to be able to tailor exciting and dynamic research projects for national and international collaborators.

If you are interested in collaborating or visiting for a formal research elective with Dr Almeida, please contact us, or take a moment to fill out the form below.

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